Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Fićo - Zastava 750 - Fiat 600 - Zastava 850

 FICO is nevertheless beat the tank, as David Goliath
In war in Croatia, city Osijek, a FICO was killed...

 Fiat 600

The Fiat 600 (Italian: Seicento, pronounced say-chento) is a city car produced by the Italian automaker Fiat from 1955 to 1969. Measuring only 3.22 m (126 in) long, it was the first rear-engined Fiat and cost the equivalent of about € 6,700 or US$ 7300 in today's money (590,000 lira then). The total number produced from 1955 to 1969 at the Mirafiori plant was 2,604,000. During 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, the car became very popular in countries such as Spain (as SEAT 600), where it became the icon, par excellence, of the Spanish miracle, Argentina, where it was nicknamed Fitito (a diminutive of Fiat) and former Yugoslavia where it was nicknamed Fićo.

The car had hydraulic drum brakes on all four wheels. Suspension was a unique single double-mounted leafspring - which acts as a stabilizer - between the front wheels coupled to gas-charged shock absorbers, and an independent coil-over-shock absorber setup coupled to semi-trailing arms at the rear. All 600 models had 3-synchro (no synchro on 1st) 4-speed transaxles. Unlike the Volkswagen Beetle or Fiat 500, the Fiat 600 is water-cooled with an ample cabin heater and, while cooling is generally adequate, for high-power modified versions a front-mounted radiator or oil cooler is needed to complement the rear-mounted radiator. All models of the 600 had generators with mechanical external regulators.

The top speed ranged from 95 km/h (59 mph) empty with the 633 cc inline-four engine to 110 km/h (68 mph) with the 767 cc version. The car had good ventilation and defrosting systems.

A year after its debut, in 1956, a soft-top version was introduced, as well as a six-seater variant — the Fiat 600 Multipla. It was a precursor of current multi-purpose vehicles.

Retrospectively the water-cooled Fiat 600 is sometimes over-shadowed by the air-cooled Fiat 500, but the 600 was a remarkably fast seller in its time: the millionth 600 was produced in February 1961, less than six years after the car's launch[1]. At the time when the millionth car was produced, the manufacturer reported it was producing the car at the then remarkable rate of 1,000 a day[1]. In total approximately 2,500,000 Fiat 600s were produced.

The Zastava 750

The Zastava 750 (Застава 750) was a car made by the Yugoslavian car maker Zavod Crvena Zastava. It was a version of the Fiat 600 made under licence from 1965, it was longer in length than the Fiat version. The Zastava 750 has a 767 cc engine and is the smallest car ever made by Zastava. Later on during production, in 1980. the Zastava 850 was introduced, it featured the same body as the Zastava 750 but the engine had a larger capacity. The Zastava 850 is harder to find than the 750 model but both are still widely available in former Yugoslavia (Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia but very rarely in Croatia, Macedonia and Slovenia).

Zastava 750 is widely known by its nickname "Fića" (Фићa) or "Fićo" (Фићo) in Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian, by "Fičo" or "Fičko" in Slovene and by "Fikjo" (Фиќо) in Macedonian. The nickname "Fića" comes from the main character of a comic published by the newspaper Borba during the first years of the car's production.

Production of the Zastava 750 began on 18 October 1955 and ended on 18 November 1985. The car's popularity has started increasing in the last years, partly from the low fuel consumption and very cheap price as a second hand vehicle. Also it starting to become a symbol for nostalgia, and many youngsters that need cheap utilitarian vehicle with a bohemian status symbol are buying this car as a second hand vehicle. Because of that prices have risen in the last couple of years and many fan clubs have emerged.

 La Fiat 600 (italiana: Seicento, pronunciato dire-chento) è una city car prodotta dalla casa automobilistica italiana Fiat 1955-1969.

Zastava 750 (Застава 750) era una macchina fatta dalla casa automobilistica jugoslava Zavod Crvena Zastava. Era una versione della Fiat 600 prodotto su licenza dal 1965, è stato più in lunghezza rispetto alla versione Fiat. La Zastava 750 è un motore di 767 cc ed è la più piccola auto mai realizzata da Zastava.

Der Fiat 600 (italienisch: Seicento, ausgesprochen sagen Chento) ist ein Stadtauto von dem italienischen Autohersteller Fiat von 1955 bis 1969 produziert.

Zastava 750 (Застава 750) war ein Auto von der jugoslawischen Autobauer Zavod Crvena Zastava gemacht. Es war eine Version des Fiat 600 unter Lizenz von 1965 gemacht, es war mehr in der Länge als der Fiat-Version. Der Zastava 750 hat eine 767 ccm-Motor und ist das kleinste Auto, das jemals von Zastava gemacht.

Fiat 600 (итальянский: Seicento, выраженный сказать-Ченто) является городской автомобиль производства итальянской Fiat автопроизводитель с 1955 по 1969 год.

Застава 750 (Застава 750) был автомобиль сделанные югославского автопроизводитель Завод Црвена Застава. Это была версия Fiat 600 сделали по лицензии с 1965 года, было больше в длину, чем версия Fiat.Застава 750 имеет двигатель 767 см и является самым маленьким автомобилем когда-либо сделанных Застава.

La Fiat 600 (italien: Seicento, prononcé disent-Chento) est une voiture de ville produite par le constructeur italien Fiat de 1955 à 1969.

Zastava 750 (Застава 750) était une voiture faite par le constructeur automobile yougoslave, Zastava Zavod Crvena. Il était une version de la Fiat 600 sous licence à partir de 1965, il a été plus en longueur que la version Fiat. La Zastava 750 a un moteur cc 767 et est la plus petite voiture jamais fait par Zastava.

وفيات 600 (الإيطالية : Seicento، وضوحا، ويقول chento) هي سيارة المدينة التي تنتجها شركة فيات الايطالية لصناعة السيارات 1955-1969.

وكان زاستافا 750 (Застава 750) سيارة التي أدلى بها صناعة السيارات زاستافا اليوغوسلافي Crvena زافود. فمن كان نسخة من فيات 600 بموجب ترخيص من عام 1965 ، في طول أطول من الإصدار فيات. وزاستافا 750 سم مكعب لديها محرك 767 و هي أصغر سيارة من أي وقت مضى من قبل زاستافا.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Vehicle insurance - car insurance

Vehicle insurance (also known as auto insurance, car insurance, or motor insurance) is insurance purchased for cars, trucks, and other road vehicles. Its primary use is to provide protection against physical damage resulting from traffic collisions and against liability that could also arise therefrom.

Kfz-Versicherung (auch als Auto-Versicherung, Kfz-Versicherung oder Kfz-Versicherung genannt) ist der Versicherungsschutz für Autos, Lastwagen und anderen Fahrzeugen erworben.

Public policy

In many jurisdictions it is compulsory to have vehicle insurance before using or keeping a motor vehicle on public roads. Most jurisdictions relate insurance to both the car and the driver, however the degree of each varies greatly.
Several jurisdictions have experimented with a "pay-as-you-drive" insurance plan which is paid through a gasoline tax. This would address issues of uninsured motorists and also charge based on the miles driven, which could theoretically increase the efficiency of the insurance through streamlined collection.


In South Australia, Third Party Personal insurance from the Motor Accident Commission is included in the licence registration fee for people over 16. A similar scheme applies in Western Australia.
In Victoria, Third Party Personal insurance from the Transport Accident Commission is similarly included, through a levy, in the vehicle registration fee.
In New South Wales, Compulsory Third Party Insurance (commonly known as CTP Insurance) is a mandatory requirement and each individual car must be insured or the vehicle will not be considered legal. Therefore, a motorist cannot drive the vehicle until it is insured. A 'Green Slip, another name by which CTP Insurance is commonly known due to the colour of the pages which the form is printed on, must be obtained through one of the five licenced insurers in New South Wales. Suncorp and Allianz both hold two licences to issue CTP Greenslips - Suncorp under the GIO and AAMI licences and Allianz under the Allianz and CIC/Allianz licences. The remaining three licences to issue CTP Greenslips are held by QBE, Zurich and IAL - NRMA.
In Queensland, CTP is a mandatory part of registration for a vehicle. There is choice of insurer but price is government controlled in a tight band.
These state based third party insurance schemes usually cover only personal injury liability. Comprehensive vehicle insurance is sold separately to cover property damage and cover can be for events such as fire, theft, collision and other property damage.


Several Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Quebec) provide a public auto insurance system while in the rest of the country insurance is provided privately. Basic auto insurance is mandatory throughout Canada with each province's government determining which benefits are included as minimum required auto insurance coverage and which benefits are options available for those seeking additional coverage. Accident benefits coverage is mandatory everywhere except for Newfoundland and Labrador. All provinces in Canada have some form of no-fault insurance available to accident victims. The difference from province to province is the extent to which tort or no-fault is emphasized. Typically, coverage against loss of or damage to the driver's own vehicle is optional - one notable exception to this is in Saskatchewan, where SGI provides collision coverage (less than a $700 deductible, such as a collision damage waiver) as part of its basic insurance policy. In Saskatchewan, residents have the option to have their auto insurance through a tort system but less than 0.5% of the population have taken this option


Since 1939 it is compulsory to have third party personal insurance before keeping a motor vehicle in all federal states of Germany. Besides, every vehicle owner is free to take out a comprehensive insurance policy. All types of car insurances are provided by several private insurers. The amount of insurance contribution is determined by several criteria, like the region, the type of car or the personal way of driving.[4]


Third-party vehicle insurance is mandatory for all vehicles in Hungary. No exemption is possible by money deposit. The premium covers all damage up to HUF 500M (about €1.8M) per accident without deductible. The coverage is extended to HUF 1,250M (about €4.5M) in case of personal injuries. Vehicle insurance policies from all EU-countries and some non-EU countries are valid in Hungary based on bilateral or multilateral agreements. Visitors with vehicle insurance not covered by such agreements are required to buy a monthly, renewable policy at the border.

Gépjármű biztosítások (más néven auto biztosítás, gépjármű-biztosítás, vagy a gépjármű-biztosítás) a biztosítási vásárolt autók, teherautók és egyéb közúti járművek.


Third-party vehicle Insurance is a mandatory requirement in Indonesia and each individual car and motorcycle must be insured or the vehicle will not be considered legal. Therefore, a motorist cannot drive the vehicle until it is insured. Third Party vehicle insurance is included through a levy in the vehicle registration fee which is paid to government institution that known as "Samsat". Third-Party Vehicle Insurance is regulated under Act No. 34 Year 1964 Re: Road Traffic Accident Fund and merely covers Bodily injury, and manages by a SOE's named PT. Jasa Raharja (Persero).[6]


Auto Insurance in India deals with the insurance covers for the loss or damage caused to the automobile or its parts due to natural and man-made calamities. It provides accident cover for individual owners of the vehicle while driving and also for passengers and third party legal liability. There are certain general insurance companies who also offer online insurance service for the vehicle.

Auto Insurance in India is a compulsory requirement for all new vehicles used whether for commercial or personal use. The insurance companies have tie-ups with leading automobile manufacturers. They offer their customers instant auto quotes. Auto premium is determined by a number of factors and the amount of premium increases with the rise in the price of the vehicle. The claims of the Auto Insurance in India can be accidental, theft claims or third party claims. Certain documents are required for claiming Auto Insurance in India , like duly signed claim form, RC copy of the vehicle, Driving license copy, FIR copy, Original estimate and policy copy.
There are different types of Auto Insurance in India :
Private Car Insurance - In the Auto Insurance in India, Private Car Insurance is the fastest growing sector as it is compulsory for all the new cars. The amount of premium depends on the make and value of the car, state where the car is registered and the year of manufacture.
Two Wheeler Insurance - The Two Wheeler Insurance under the Auto Insurance in India covers accidental insurance for the drivers of the vehicle. The amount of premium depends on the current showroom price multiplied by the depreciation rate fixed by the Tariff Advisory Committee at the time of the beginning of policy period.

Commercial Vehicle Insurance - Commercial Vehicle Insurance under the Auto Insurance in India provides cover for all the vehicles which are not used for personal purposes, like the Trucks and HMVs. The amount of premium depends on the showroom price of the vehicle at the commencement of the insurance period, make of the vehicle and the place of registration of the vehicle. The auto insurance generally includes:
Loss or damage by accident, fire, lightning, self ignition, external explosion, burglary, housebreaking or theft, malicious act. Liability for third party injury/death, third party property and liability to paid driver On payment of appropriate additional premium, loss/damage to electrical/electronic accessories The auto insurance does not include:
1).Consequential loss, depreciation, mechanical and electrical breakdown, failure or breakage
2).When vehicle is used outside the geographical area
3).War or nuclear perils and drunken driving


The Road Traffic Act, 1933 requires all drivers of mechanically propelled vehicles in public places to have at least third-party insurance, or to have obtained exemption - generally by depositing a (large) sum of money with the High Court as a guarantee against claims. In 1933 this figure was set at £15,000. The Road Traffic Act, 1961 [2] (which is currently in force) repealed the 1933 act but replaced these sections with functionally identical sections.
From 1968, those making deposits require the consent of the Minister for Transport to do so, with the sum specified by the Minister.
Those not exempted from obtaining insurance must obtain a certificate of insurance from their insurance provider, and display a portion of this (an insurance disc) on their vehicles windscreen (if fitted). The certificate in full must be presented to a police station within ten days if requested by an officer. Proof of having insurance or an exemption must also be provided to pay for the motor tax.
Those injured or suffering property damage/loss due to uninsured drivers can claim against the Motor Insurance Bureau of Ireland's uninsured drivers fund, as can those injured (but not those suffering damage or loss) from hit and run offences.

Is é árachas Feithicle (ar a dtugtar árachas carranna, árachas gluaisteáin, árachas mótair) árachais a ceannaíodh do ghluaisteáin, trucailí, agus feithiclí bóthair eile.


In Norway you need a minimum of liability insurance to drive any kind of vehicle on the road.


Romanian law mandates Răspundere Auto Civilă, a motor-vehicle liability insurance for all vehicle owners to cover damages to third parties.

South Africa

South Africa allocates a percentage of the money from gasoline into the Road Accidents Fund, which goes towards compensating third parties in accidents.

[edit] United Kingdom

In 1930, the UK government introduced a law that required every person who used a vehicle on the road to have at least third party personal injury insurance. Today UK law is defined by the Road Traffic Act 1988, which was last modified in 1991. The Act requires that motorists either be insured, have a security, or have made a specified deposit (£500,000 as of 1991) with the Accountant General of the Supreme Court, against their liability for injuries to others (including passengers) and for damage to other persons' property resulting from use of a vehicle on a public road or in other public places.
It is an offence to use a car, or allow others to use it, without the insurance that satisfies the act whilst on the public highway (or public place Section 143(1)(a) RTA 1988 as amended 1991); however, no such legislation applies on private land.
Road Traffic Act Only Insurance differs from Third Party Only Insurance (detailed below) and is not often sold. It provides the very minimum cover to satisfy the requirements of the Act. For example Road Traffic Act Only Insurance has a limit of £1,000,000 for damage to third party property - third party only insurance typically has a greater limit for third party property damage.
The minimum level of insurance cover commonly available and which satisfies the requirement of the Act is called third party only insurance. The level of cover provided by Third party only insurance is basic but does exceed the requirements of the act. This insurance covers any liability to third parties but does not cover any other risks.
More commonly purchased is third party, fire and theft. This covers all third party liabilities and also covers the vehicle owner against the destruction of the vehicle by fire (whether malicious or due to a vehicle fault) and theft of the vehicle itself. It may or may not cover vandalism. This kind of insurance and the two preceding types do not cover damage to the vehicle caused by the driver or other hazards.
Comprehensive insurance covers all of the above and damage to the vehicle caused by the driver themselves, as well as vandalism and other risks. This is usually the most expensive type of insurance.
Vehicles which are exempted by the act, from the requirement to be covered, include those owned by certain councils and local authorities, national park authorities, education authorities, police authorities, fire authorities, health service bodies and security services.
The insurance certificate or cover note issued by the insurance company constitutes legal evidence that the vehicle specified on the document is insured. The law says that an authorised person, such as the police, may require a driver to produce an insurance certificate for inspection. If the driver cannot show the document immediately on request, and proof of insurance cannot be found by other means such as the Police National Computer, drivers are no longer issued a HORT/1. This was an order with seven days, as of midnight of the date of issue, to take a valid insurance certificate (and usually other driving documents as well) to a police station of the driver's choice. Failure to produce an insurance certificate is an offence. The HORT/1 was commonly known - even by the issuing authorities when dealing with the public - as a "Producer".
Insurance is more expensive in Northern Ireland than in other parts of the UK.[vague][citation needed]
Most motorists in the UK are required to prominently display a vehicle licence (tax disc) on their vehicle when it is kept or driven on public roads. This helps to ensure that most people have adequate insurance on their vehicles because an insurance certificate must be produced when a disc is purchased.[10]
The Motor Insurers' Bureau compensates the victims of road accidents caused by uninsured and untraced motorists. It also operates the Motor Insurance Database, which contains details of every insured vehicle in the country.

United States

In the United States, auto insurance covering liability for injuries and property damage done to others is compulsory in most states, though different states enforce the requirement differently. The state of New Hampshire, for example, does not require motorists to carry liability insurance (the ballpark model), while in Virginia residents must pay the state a $500 annual fee per vehicle if they choose not to buy liability insurance. Penalties for not purchasing auto insurance vary by state, but often involve a substantial fine, license and/or registration suspension or revocation, as well as possible jail time. Usually, the minimum required by law is third party insurance to protect third parties against the financial consequences of loss, damage or injury caused by a vehicle.
One common misconception in the United States is that vehicles that are financed on creditbank or credit union are required to have "full" coverage in order for the financial institution to cover their losses in the case of an accident. While most states do require additional coverage to be purchased, some such as Pennsylvania only require Comprehensive and Collision to be purchased in addition to liability and not "full" coverage. Vehicles bought on cash or have been paid off by the owner are generally required to only carry liability. In some cases, vehicles financed through a "buy-here-pay-here" car dealership--in which the consumer (generally those with poor credit) finances a car and pays the dealer directly without a bank--also only require liability coverage. through a
Several states, like California and New Jersey, have enacted "Personal Responsibility Acts" which put further pressure on all drivers to carry liability insurance by preventing uninsured drivers from recovering noneconomic damages (e.g. compensation for "pain and suffering") if they are injured in any way while operating a motor vehicle.
Some states, such as North Carolina, require that a driver hold liability insurance before a license can be issued.
Some states require that insurance be carried in the car at all times, while others do not enforce this law. For example, North Carolina does not specify that you must carry proof of insurance in the vehicle; however, NC does state that you must have that information to trade with another driver in the event of an accident. Whether a state specifies you must have proof of insurance in the car or not, it's always advisable to have the information on hand in case an officer should request it.
Arizona Department of Transportation Research Project Manager John Semmens has recommended that car insurers issue license plates, and that they be held responsible for the full cost of injuries and property damages caused by their licensees under the Disneyland model. Plates would expire at the end of the insurance coverage period, and licensees would need to return their plates to their insurance office to receive a refund on their premiums. Vehicles driving without insurance would thus be easy to spot because they would not have license plates, or the plates would be past the marked expiration date.

Friday, October 7, 2011

Toyota Supra

The Toyota Supra is a sports car/grand tourer that was produced by Toyota Motor Company from 1979 to 2002. The styling of the Toyota Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider. Starting in mid-1986, the Supra (in its third generation, Mark III) became its own model and was no longer based on the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and began just calling the car Supra. Due to the similarity and past of the Celica's name, it is frequently mistaken for the Toyota Supra, and vice versa.

The Supra also traces much of its roots back to the Toyota 2000GT with the main instance being its engine. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the Toyota Crown's and 2000GT's M engine. All four generations of Supra produced have an inline 6-cylinder engine. Interior aspects were also similar, as was the chassis code "A".

Along with this name and car Toyota also included its own logo for the Supra. It is derived from the original Celica logo, being blue instead of orange. This logo was used until January 1986, when the Mark III Supra was introduced. The new logo was similar in size, with orange writing on a red background, but without the dragon design. That logo, in turn, was on Supras until 1991 when Toyota switched to its current oval company logo. (the dragon logo was a Celica logo regardless of what color it was. It appeared on the first two generations of the Supra because they were officially Toyota Celicas. The dragon logo was used for the Celica line until it too was discontinued.)

The third generation Supra was introduced in 1986.5 as a free standing model, officially separating it from the Celica. Whereas the Celica became a front wheel drive sport coupe, the Supra retained its image as a rear-wheel drive sports/GT car. The new Supra would continue to move upscale and become a showcase for Toyota technology. Originally slated as a 1986 model, production delays caused the model to actually be introduced mid year (hence the 1986.5 designation). The all new Supra was powered by a 3.0 liter DOHC inline six cylinder engine rated at 200 bhp. Notable features included an electronically controlled independent suspension (called the Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension - TEMS), and a removable Sport-Roof panel (Targa top).

La Toyota Supra è una vettura / Grand Sports Tourer, che è stata prodotta da Toyota Motor Company dal 1979-2002. Lo stile delle Toyota Supra è stata derivata dalla Toyota Celica, ma era tanto più lunga e più ampia.

Der Toyota Supra ist ein Sportwagen / Grand Tourer, der von Toyota Motor Company von 1979 bis 2002 produziert wurde. Das Styling des Toyota Supra wurde von der Toyota Celica abgeleitet, aber es war länger und breiter.

El Toyota Supra es un coche deportivo / Grand Tourer que fue producida por Toyota Motor Company desde 1979 hasta 2002. El estilo del Toyota Supra se deriva del Toyota Celica, pero fue más largo y más amplio.

Toyota Supra представляет собой спортивный автомобиль / Grand Tourer, который был произведен компанией Toyota Motor с 1979 по 2002 год.Стиль Toyota Supra была получена из Toyota Celica, но он был и длиннее и шире.
 وتويوتا سوبرا هي سيارة رياضية / السيارة السياحية الكبرى التي تم إنتاجها من قبل شركة تويوتا موتور 1979-2002. استمدت من تصميم تويوتا سوبرا تويوتا سيليكا من، ولكنه كان على حد سواء لفترة أطول وأوسع.
 La Toyota Supra est une voiture de sport / Grand Tourer qui a été produite par Toyota Motor Company de 1979 à 2002. Le style de la Toyota Supra a été dérivée de la Toyota Celica, mais elle était à la fois longue et plus large.